Tag Archives: diabetes

Fett auf einem Chip untersuchen

Plattform arbeitet mit kleinsten Flüssigkeitsmengen, um Zellen heranreifen zu lassen und deren Entwicklung zu analysieren

Eine Freiburger Forschungsgruppe hat einen Chip entwickelt, der es ermöglicht, mehr als einhundert adulte Stammzellkulturen des Fettgewebes anzulegen, das heißt sie heranwachsen und sich teilen zu lassen. Das Fettgewebe dient im menschlichen Körper als Hauptenergiespeicher. Adulte Stammzellen haben die Funktion, es aufrechtzuerhalten und zu regenerieren. Mit dem Chip wollen die Forschenden außerhalb des Körpers studieren, wie sich adulte Stammzellen im Fettgewebe zu reifen Fettzellen entwickeln. Bei bisherigen Experimenten entschlüsselten sie einen Signalweg, der am Reifungsprozess der Fettzellen beteiligt ist, und zeigten, dass Kalorien im Nährmedium diesen Vorgang beeinflussen. Das Team hat seine Forschungsergebnisse im Fachmagazin „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences“ (PNAS) veröffentlicht. „Zukünftig wollen wir untersuchen, unter welchen Umweltfaktoren – insbesondere bei welchen Nährstoffbedingungen – unterschiedliche Fettzelltypen entstehen“, sagt der Biophysiker Dr. Matthias Meier. „Daraus ließen sich neue Ansätze ableiten, um Fettleibigkeit und Diabetes zu bekämpfen.“


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Variety in Diet Can Hamper Microbial Diversity in the Gut

AUSTIN, Texas — Scientists from The University of Texas at Austin and five other institutions have discovered that the more diverse the diet of a fish, the less diverse are the microbes living in its gut. If the effect is confirmed in humans, it could mean that the combinations of foods people eat can influence the diversity of their gut microbes. (more…)

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Elusive leptin

Researchers find first evidence of fat-regulating hormone in avian species

Since leptin was discovered 20 years ago, more than 115,000 papers have been published on this protein in humans, and another 5,000 have appeared on leptin in mice.

Leptin’s popularity is not surprising, as the hormone is the principal marker for the development of morbid obesity in humans. Leptin and its receptor play critical roles in the control of food intake and energy expenditure, thereby affecting body weight, abdominal fatness, thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism. (more…)

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Heart attack survival far lower in UK than Sweden

The chance of surviving a heart attack is far lower in the UK than Sweden, according to a major new study published in The Lancet. The startling findings suggest that more than 11,000 lives could have been saved over the past 7 years had UK patients experienced the same care as their Swedish counterparts.

“Our findings are a cause for concern,” says study leader Professor Harry Hemingway, from the Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, and the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at UCL. “The uptake and use of new technologies and effective treatments recommended in guidelines has been far quicker in Sweden. This has contributed to large differences in the management and outcomes of patients.” (more…)

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Discovery spotlights key role of mystery RNA modification in cells

Researchers had known for several decades that a certain chemical modification exists on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), which is essential to the flow of genetic information. But only recently did experiments at the University of Chicago show that one major function of this modification governs the longevity and decay of RNA, a process critical to the development of healthy cells.

The chemical modification on mRNA in question is called N6-methyladenosine (m6A). A recent study by UChicago scientists reveals how the m6A modification on mRNA could affect the half-life of mRNA that in turn regulates cellular protein quantities. That discovery could provide fundamental insights into healthy functioning and disorders such as obesity, diabetes and infertility. (more…)

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Genetic flaw in males triggers onset of liver cancer, diabetes

Michigan State University researchers have uncovered a genetic deficiency in males that can trigger the development of one of the most common types of liver cancer and forms of diabetes.

The research, published in the online issue of Cancer Cell, found that when the NCOA5 gene, present in both men and women, was altered in male mice to a deficient level, a spontaneous reaction occurred producing cells that can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of liver cancer found to be two-to-four times more prevalent in men than women. (more…)

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Love thy neighbor: It could lower your risk of stroke

ANN ARBOR — Here’s some neighborly advice for adults over age 50: Stay friendly with your neighbors.

A new University of Michigan study shows that adults in this age bracket who live in a good neighborhood with trustworthy people lowered their risk of stroke up to 48 percent.

Feeling connected with neighbors builds what researchers describe as “neighborhood social cohesion.” The trust and connection with neighbors was associated with a reduced risk of stroke above and beyond the effects of negative psychological factors—such as depression and anxiety, said Eric Kim, a doctoral student in the U-M Department of Psychology and the study’s lead author. (more…)

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Among Indian immigrants, religious practice and obesity may be linked, study shows

Asian Indians are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, and roughly half a million people of Indian ancestry live in California — more than any other state. Individuals from this group are strongly predisposed to obesity-related conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, due in large part to physical inactivity, diets low in fruit and vegetables, and insulin resistance.

Among other racial and ethnic groups, research has shown that religious practices and religiosity have been associated with obesity and greater body weight, but no one had studied this potential link among Indians. (more…)

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