Tag Archives: diagnosis

New test may improve diagnosis, treatment of gastrointestinal cancers

University of Chicago researchers have developed a method to diagnose pancreatic cancer earlier in patients. By collecting samples from the portal vein—which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, including from the pancreas, to the liver—physicians can learn far more about a patient’s pancreatic cancer than by relying on peripheral blood from a more easily accessed vein in the arm. (more…)

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Device Could Speed Diagnosis of Infections

A new device created by a collaborative team of UA engineers and scientists may significantly reduce the amount of time necessary to diagnose tissue infections.

When a patient arrives at a hospital with a serious infection, doctors have precious little time to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment accordingly. (more…)

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Tenfold boost in ability to pinpoint proteins in cancer cells

Better diagnosis and treatment of cancer could hinge on the ability to better understand a single cell at its molecular level. New research offers a more comprehensive way of analyzing one cell’s unique behavior, using an array of colors to show patterns that could indicate why a cell will or won’t become cancerous.

A University of Washington team has developed a new method for color-coding cells that allows them to illuminate 100 biomarkers, a ten-time increase from the current research standard, to help analyze individual cells from cultures or tissue biopsies. The work is published this week (March 19) in Nature Communications. (more…)

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Few Pregnant Women Treated for Sexually Transmitted Infections

Many pregnant women with sexually transmitted infections aren’t getting the treatment they need when they visit emergency rooms, according to a new Michigan State University study that highlights a wholly preventable risk to unborn children and raises questions about current medical guidelines.

About half of the 735 women with gonorrhea or chlamydia who visited the ERs at three hospitals in Grand Rapids, Mich. from 2008 through 2010 did not get treatment there, despite the availability of effective and relatively inexpensive antibiotics. Of the 179 who were pregnant, only 20 percent received treatment in the ER. (more…)

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Prostate Cancer Now Detectable Using Imaging-Guided Biopsy, UCLA Study Shows

Groundbreaking research by a team of UCLA physicians and engineers demonstrates that prostate cancer — long identifiable only through painful, hit-or-miss biopsies — can be diagnosed far more easily and accurately using a new image-guided, targeted biopsy procedure.

Traditionally, prostate tumors have been found through so-called blind biopsies, in which tissue samples are taken systematically from the entire prostate in the hopes of locating a piece of tumor — a technique that dates back to the 1980s. But the cancer now appears detectable by direct sampling of tumor spots found using magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, in combination with real-time ultrasound, the researchers say. (more…)

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Duplex-sequencing Method Could Lead to Better Cancer Detection and Treatment

During an ice climbing trip to the Canadian Rockies last Christmas, two young researchers from the University of Washington, Drs. Michael Schmitt and Jesse Salk, talked about a simple but powerful idea to get better results when looking at cancer cells. If they could reduce the error rate in DNA sequencing, then researchers could better pinpoint which cells are mutating.

This improvement could lead to early diagnosis of cancer and a better treatment plan once researchers knew which cells were resistant to chemotherapy. (more…)

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Researchers Determine Vitamin D Blood Level for Reducing Major Medical Risks in Older Adults

In testing older patients’ blood vitamin D levels, there’s uncertainty about where the dividing line falls between enough and not enough. The threshold amount has become controversial as several scientific societies set different targets.

To help resolve this debate, University of Washington researchers conducted an observational study. They wanted to learn how much vitamin D must be circulating in the blood to lower the risk of a major medical event. This category included heart attack, hip fracture, diagnosis of cancer, or death. (more…)

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UCLA Researchers Combat Global Disease with a Cell Phone, Google Maps and a Lot of Ingenuity

In the fight against emerging public health threats, early diagnosis of infectious diseases is crucial. And in poor and remote areas of the globe where conventional medical tools like microscopes and cytometers are unavailable, rapid diagnostic tests, or RDTs, are helping to make disease screening quicker and simpler.

RDTs are generally small strips on which blood or fluid samples are placed. Specific changes in the color of the strip, which usually occur within minutes, indicate the presence of infection. Different tests can be used to detect various diseases, including HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and syphilis. (more…)

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