Tag Archives: gene

Study identifies gene — and drug target — involved in inflammation after injury

During a stroke or organ transplant, patients can suffer an injury due to lack of blood supply to vital organs. The injury — known as ischemia reperfusion — can cause damage to tissues. But a new Yale-led study has identified a previously unknown mechanism leading to the injury, and a potential target for drug treatment. (more…)

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Bakterien gesucht, Riesenviren gefunden

Entdeckung gigantisch großer Viren löst Rätsel um vierte Domäne des Lebens

Viren sind für gewöhnlich klein – so klein, dass sie weder mit bloßem Auge noch mit Hilfe eines Lichtmikroskops erkennbar sind. MikrobiologInnen um Michael Wagner, Holger Daims und Matthias Horn von der Universität Wien und des U.S.-amerikanischen Joint Genome Institute haben nun gleich vier verschiedene so genannte Riesenviren in einer Probe u.a. aus der Kläranlage Klosterneuburg entdeckt. Die “Klosneuviren” sind hundertfach größer als das Grippevirus, für den Menschen harmlos und beenden möglicherweise eine jahrelange Kontroverse über eine vierte Domäne des Lebens. Die Studie erscheint aktuell in der Zeitschrift “Science”. (more…)

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Researchers find genes behind aggressive ovarian and endometrial cancers

In a major breakthrough for ovarian and uterine cancers, Yale researchers have defined the genetic landscape of rare, highly aggressive tumors called carcinosarcomas (CSs), pointing the way to possible new treatments. (more…)

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A gene for new species is discovered

If two fruit fly species mate, it makes offspring dead or infertile

A University of Utah-led study identified a long-sought “hybrid inviability gene” responsible for dead or infertile offspring when two species of fruit flies mate with each other. The discovery sheds light on the genetic and molecular process leading to formation of new species, and may provide clues to how cancer develops. (more…)

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MU Research of Zebrafish Neurons May Lead to Better Understanding of Birth Defects like Spina Bifida

COLUMBIA, Mo. – The zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish similar to a minnow and native to the southeastern Himalayan region, is well established as a key tool for researchers studying human diseases, including brain disorders. Using zebrafish, scientists can determine how individual neurons develop, mature and support basic functions like breathing, swallowing and jaw movement. Researchers at the University of Missouri say that learning about neuronal development and maturation in zebrafish could lead to a better understanding of birth defects such as spina bifida in humans.

“We are studying how neurons move to their final destinations,” said Anand Chandrasekhar, professor of biological sciences and a researcher in the Bond Life Sciences Center at MU. “It’s especially critical in the nervous system because these neurons are generating circuits similar to what you might see in computers. If those circuits don’t form properly, and if different types of neurons don’t end up in the right locations, the behavior and survival of the animal will be compromised.” (more…)

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Help for a scarred heart: Scarring cells turned to beating muscle

Poets and physicians know that a scarred heart cannot beat the way it used to, but the science of reprogramming cells offers hope—for the physical heart, at least.

A team of University of Michigan biomedical engineers has turned cells common in scar tissue into colonies of beating heart cells. Their findings could advance the path toward regenerating tissue that’s been damaged in a heart attack. (more…)

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Researchers ID more pesticides linked to Parkinson’s, gene that increases risk

Studies have shown that certain pesticides can increase people’s risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Now, UCLA researchers have found that the strength of that risk depends on an individual’s genetic makeup, which, in the most pesticide-exposed populations, could increase a person’s chance of developing the debilitating disease two- to six-fold.  

In an earlier study, published January 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the UCLA team discovered a link between Parkinson’s and the pesticide benomyl, a fungicide that has been banned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. That study found that benomyl prevents the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from converting aldehydes — organic compounds that are highly toxic to dopamine cells in the brain — into less toxic agents, thereby contributing to the risk of Parkinson’s.  (more…)

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