Tag Archives: genome

New Bacteria Groups, and Stunning Diversity, Discovered Underground

Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley research also provides new clues about the roles of subsurface microbes in globally important cycles

One of the most detailed genomic studies of any ecosystem to date has revealed an underground world of stunning microbial diversity, and added dozens of new branches to the tree of life. (more…)

Read More

Heutige Syphilisinfektionen könnten auf wenige gemeinsame Vorfahren der Erreger zurückgehen

Ein internationales Forscherteam unter Beteiligung der Universität Tübingen untersucht die genetische Herkunft des Syphiliserregers, der sich in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten wieder ausgebreitet hat

Über die ersten Ausbrüche der Syphilis in Europa wurde 1495 im Krieg von Neapel berichtet. Der Erreger, ein Bakterium mit dem Namen Treponema pallidum, breitete sich danach schnell auf weitere Kontinente aus. Die meist über sexuelle Kontakte übertragene Syphilis wurde eine der gefürchtetsten Infektionskrankheiten in der Menschheitsgeschichte. (more…)

Read More

Landmark genetic analysis identifies how woolly mammoth adapted to arctic life

The first comprehensive analysis of the woolly mammoth genome reveals extensive genetic changes that allowed mammoths to adapt to life in the arctic. Mammoth genes that differed from their counterparts in elephants played roles in skin and hair development, fat metabolism, insulin signaling and numerous other traits. Genes linked to physical traits such as skull shape, small ears and short tails were also identified. As a test of function, a mammoth gene involved in temperature sensation was resurrected in the laboratory and its protein product characterized. (more…)

Read More

Genduplikation als Erfolgsgeheimnis der Chlamydien

Chlamydien gehören mit mehr als 100 Millionen infizierten Personen weltweit zu den häufigsten sexuell übertragbaren Krankheitserregern. Matthias Horn und sein Team vom Department für Mikrobiologie und Ökosystemforschung der Universität Wien untersuchten, was hinter dem evolutionären Erfolg der Chlamydien steht und entdeckten, dass Genduplikationen eine entscheidende Rolle gespielt haben dürften. Diese neuen Erkenntnisse wurden aktuell in der renommierten Fachzeitschrift “Molecular Biology and Evolution” veröffentlicht.

Daryl Domman, Matthias Horn und KollegInnen haben dazu die Genome von vier Chlamydienarten sequenziert. Diese sind zwar nahe mit den für den Menschen relevanten Krankheitserregern verwandt, leben aber als Symbionten innerhalb einzelliger Amöben. Der Vergleich mit den Genomen der Krankheitserreger zeigte, dass das Durchmischen der genomischen Ausstattung eine wichtige Rolle in der Evolution der Chlamydien gespielt hat, oft mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Manipulation und Ausbeutung ihrer Wirtszellen. (more…)

Read More

Vast Gene-Expression Map Yields Neurological and Environmental Stress Insights

Berkeley Lab scientists lead broadest survey yet of RNA activity in any animal

A consortium led by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has conducted the largest survey yet of how information encoded in an animal genome is processed in different organs, stages of development, and environmental conditions. Their findings paint a new picture of how genes function in the nervous system and in response to environmental stress. (more…)

Read More

Scientists Chip Away at the Mystery of What Lives in Our Mouths

Sequencing of harmless oral bacterium offers insights about its disease-causing relative

COLUMBUS, Ohio – Scientists have pieced together sections of DNA from 12 individual cells to sequence the genome of a bacterium known to live in healthy human mouths.

With this new data about a part of the body considered “biological dark matter,” the researchers were able to reinforce a theory that genes in a closely related bacterium could be culprits in its ability to cause severe gum disease. (more…)

Read More

New Look Inside Cell Nucleus Could Improve Cancer Diagnostics

Researchers have sequenced the entire messenger RNA – the “genetic photocopies” – contained in the nucleus of a single cell, a long-anticipated step toward better cancer diagnostics and other medical applications.

Researchers have successfully isolated and sequenced the entire messenger RNA – the “genetic photocopies” – contained in the nucleus of a single brain cell. This research, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, will help researchers better understand how organs function in health and disease and provide another stepping stone toward personalized medicine.   (more…)

Read More

Edited RNA + invasive DNA add individuality

A study in Nature Communications finds that an enzyme that edits RNA may loosen the genome’s control over invasive snippets of DNA that affect how genes are expressed. In fruit flies, that newly understood mechanism appears to contribute to differences among individuals such as eye color and life span.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — The story of why we are all so different goes well beyond the endless mixing and matching of DNA through breeding. A new study in the journal Nature Communications, for instance, reports a new molecular mechanism of individual variation found in fruit flies that uses components operating in a wide variety of species, including humans. (more…)

Read More