Tag Archives: region

Wie Erinnerungen im Gehirn entstehen

Freiburger Wissenschaftler haben Mechanismen untersucht, die der Gedächtnisbildung zugrunde liegen

Das menschliche Gehirn bildet täglich neue Erinnerungen an Ereignisse aus dem Alltag. Aus einer Kette von Ereignissen entstehen sogenannte episodische Erinnerungen an einen räumlichen und zeitlichen Ablauf. Diese speichert das Gehirn im Hippocampus, einer Region im Schläfenlappen, als Aktivierungsmuster von Nervenzellgruppen. Eine entscheidende Rolle spielen dabei Synapsen, die Nervenzellen verbinden. Sie können ihre Stärke anpassen und sich so verändern. Freiburger Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler haben die molekularen Mechanismen untersucht, die der langanhaltenden Veränderbarkeit von bestimmten Synapsen zugrunde liegen. Die Forschungsergebnisse wurden in der Fachzeitsschrift „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences“ (PNAS) veröffentlicht. An der Forschung beteiligt sind Prof. Dr. Marlene Bartos vom Physiologischen Institut der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität und dem Bernstein Center Freiburg, Thomas Hainmüller vom Physiologischen Institut, Prof. Dr. Kerstin Krieglstein vom Institut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie und Dr. Akos Kulik vom Physiologischen Institut und dem Exzellenzcluster BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies. (more…)

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CU study provides new evidence ancient asteroid caused global firestorm on Earth

A new look at conditions after a Manhattan-sized asteroid slammed into a region of Mexico in the dinosaur days indicates the event could have triggered a global firestorm that would have burned every twig, bush and tree on Earth and led to the extinction of 80 percent of all Earth’s species, says a new University of Colorado Boulder study.

Led by Douglas Robertson of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, or CIRES, the team used models that show the collision would have vaporized huge amounts of rock that were then blown high above Earth’s atmosphere. The re-entering ejected material would have heated the upper atmosphere enough to glow red for several hours at roughly 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit — about the temperature of an oven broiler element — killing every living thing not sheltered underground or underwater. (more…)

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Study Provides New Insights on Drought Predictions in East Africa

Research May Also Help Determine Effects of Global Warming in the Region

With more than 40 million people living under exceptional drought conditions in East Africa, the ability to make accurate predictions of drought has never been more important. In the aftermath of widespread famine and a humanitarian crisis caused by the 2010-2011 drought in the Horn of Africa—possibly the worst drought in 60 years— researchers are striving to determine whether drying trends will continue.

While it is clear that El Niño can affect precipitation in this region of East Africa, very little is known about the drivers of long-term shifts in rainfall. However, new research described in the journal Nature helps explain the mechanisms at work behind historical patterns of aridity in Eastern Africa over many decades, and the findings may help improve future predictions of drought and food security in the region. (more…)

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Mammalian Brain Knows Where It’s at

A new study in the journal Neuron suggests that the brain uses a different region than neuroscientists had thought to associate objects and locations in the space around an individual. Knowing where this fundamental process occurs could help treat disease and brain injury as well as inform basic understanding of how the brain supports memory and guides behavior.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — Where are you?

Conventional wisdom in brain research says that you just used your hippocampus to answer that question, but that might not be the whole story. The context of place depends on not just how you got there, but also the things you see around you. A new study in Neuron provides evidence that a different part of the brain is important for understanding where you are based on the spatial layout of the objects in that place. The finding, in rats, has a direct analogy to primate neuroanatomy. (more…)

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Why Older Adults Become Fraud Victims More Often

Brain shows diminished response to untrustworthiness, UCLA scientists report

Why are older people especially vulnerable to becoming victims of fraud? A new UCLA study indicates that an important clue may lie in a particular region of the brain that influences the ability to discern who is honest and who is trying to deceive us.

Older people, more than younger adults, may fail to interpret an untrustworthy face as potentially dishonest, the study shows. The reason for this, the UCLA life scientists found, seems to be that a brain region called the anterior insula, which is linked to disgust and is important for discerning untrustworthy faces, is less active in older adults. (more…)

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What Will You Do If an Earthquake Hits?

Join the Great ShakeOut on October 18, 2012, to prepare

The Central Virginia Seismic Zone, it’s called, and it sometimes shakes everything in sight.

As long ago as 1774, people in central Virginia felt small earthquakes and suffered damage from intermittent larger ones. A magnitude 4.8 quake happened in 1875.

Then last year, on August 23, 2011, a magnitude 5.8 quake hit the same region. Several aftershocks, ranging up to magnitude 4.5, occurred after the main tremor.

Will there be another such quake in the mid-Atlantic region? (more…)

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Facebook Captures Top Spot among Social Networking Sites in India

*Indian Social Networking Audience Soars 43 Percent in Past Year* 

Mumbai, India, August 25, 2010 – comScore, Inc. (NASDAQ: SCOR), a leader in measuring the digital world, today released a report on traffic to Social Networking sites in India, revealing that Facebook.com grabbed the number one ranking in the category for the first time in July with 20.9 million visitors, up 179 percent versus year ago.

(more…)

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