Fungi are the rainforest ‘diversity police’

A new study has revealed that fungi, often seen as pests, play a crucial role policing biodiversity in rainforests.

The research, by scientists at Oxford University, the University of Exeter and Sheffield University, found that fungi regulate diversity in rainforests by making dominant species victims of their own success.

Fungi spread quickly between closely-packed plants of the same species, preventing them from dominating and enabling a wider range of species to flourish.

“In the plant world, close relatives make bad neighbours,” said Dr Owen Lewis of Oxford University’s Department of Zoology, who led the study. “Seedlings growing near plants of the same species are more likely to die and we now know why. It has long been suspected that something in the soil is responsible, and we’ve now shown that fungi play a crucial role. It’s astonishing to see microscopic fungi having such a profound effect on entire rainforests.

Fungi prevent any single species from dominating in the rainforest. Image courtesy Owen Lewis

Fungi prevent any single species from dominating in the rainforest. Image courtesy Owen Lewis

“Fungi prevent any single species from dominating rainforests as they spread more easily between plants and seedlings of the same species. If lots of plants from one species grow in the same place, fungi quickly cut their population down to size, levelling the playing field to give rarer species a fighting chance. Plots sprayed with fungicide soon become dominated by a few species at the expense of many others, leading to a marked drop in diversity.”

The study, published in Nature, looked at seedling plots across 36 sampling stations in the Chiquibul Forest Reserve, Belize. It was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Researchers sprayed plots with water, insecticide or fungicide every week for 17 months. They found that the fungicide Amistar dealt a significant blow to diversity, reducing the effective number of species by 16%. While the insecticide did change the composition of surviving species, it did not have an overall impact on diversity.

Scientists had suspected that fungus-like microorganisms called oomycetes might also play a part in policing rainforest diversity, but this now seems unlikely.

Professor Sarah Gurr, of Biosciences at the University of Exeter, said: “Oomycetes are potent pathogens that can cause seeds and seedlings to rot, and were responsible for the 1840s potato famine. To see if they play a role in promoting rainforest biodiversity, we sprayed plots with a fungicide which protects plants against oomycetes called Ridomil Gold. It had no significant effect on the number of surviving species, suggesting that true fungi and not oomycetes are driving rainforest diversity.”

The findings help to explain why tropical rainforests are so much more diverse than forests in temperate countries.

*Source: University of Exeter

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